# Measure Agreement Between Two Raters

In statistics, inter-rater reliability (also referred to by different similar names such as Inter-Rater agreement, inter-rater concordance, inter-observer reliability, etc.) is the degree of consistency between evaluators. It is an assessment of homogeneity or consensus in the assessments of different judges. The term πii is the probability that both have classified the film in the same category i, and Σi πii is the overall probability of the concordance. Ideally, all or most observations are classified on the main diagonal, which means a perfect concordance. Weighted kappa is a version of kappa used to measure compliance with ordered variables (see section 11.5.5 of Agresti, 2013). For more details on compliance measures and cross-referenced data modelling, see Chapters 11 (Agresti, 2013) and Chapter 8 (Agresti, 2007). We won`t discuss some of these models until later in the semester, while we study the loglineare and logit model. If the respected agreement is due only to chance, that is: If the evaluations are totally independent, then each diagonal element is a product of the two marginals. In the square table \$Itimes I\$, the main diagonal {i = j} represents the conformity of the council or observer.

The term πij refers to the probability that Siskel will classify the move as category i and Ebert will classify the same film as category j. For example, π13 means that Ebert gave “two thumbs up” and siskel “thumbs down.” Measures with ambiguities in characteristics relevant to the scoring objective are usually improved with several trained evaluators. These measurement tasks often involve a subjective assessment of quality. For example, evaluations of the physician`s bedside maners, the assessment of the credibility of witnesses by a jury, and the ability of an intervener to present. Therefore, the common probability of an agreement will remain high even in the absence of an “intrinsic” agreement between the evaluators. A useful inter-council reliability coefficient (a) should be close to 0 if there is no “intrinsic” match and (b) increase as the “intrinsic” concordance rate increases. Most of the chance-corrected match coefficients achieve the first objective. However, the second objective is not achieved by many well-known measures that have made it possible to achieve the opportunities. [4] Solution: The modeling agreement (e.g.

.B. on loglineare or other models) is usually a more informative approach. Compliance limits = mean difference observed ± 1.96 standard deviation × of the observed differences. The common probability of an agreement is the simplest and least robust measure. It is estimated as a percentage of the time during which evaluators agree on a nominal or categorical evaluation system. .

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